5G Technology – Introduction to Deep Dive

In recent days as technology is growing day by day so there is an evolution in generations also and that is known as 5G, which stands for Fifth Generation mobile network. The main motive behind the growth in generations is the necessity for high bandwidth and very low latency. 5G provides a high data range, low latency, high coverage, improved quality of services (QoS), and high reliability.

5G is faster than 4G which provides remote-controlled operations on a network with zero delays. It offers maximum throughput of up to 20Gbps. 5G is also used for the 4th Generation World Wide Wireless Web(4GWWWW) and which is based on (IPv6). 

5G provides unlimited connectivity at your convenience anytime, anywhere with a high-speed data rate, high throughput, low latency, higher scalability, and efficient communication technology. 

5G Communication Types

Below are the main communications types 5G network uses:

1. eMBB

eMBB which stands for Extreme mobile broadband, is a Non-StandAlone (NSA) architecture that offers services like high-speed internet connectivity, higher bandwidth, UltraHD live streaming videos, AR (Augmented Reality), and VR (Virtual Reality) media.


URLLC stands for Ultra-reliable low latency communication is used to offer low latency, super high reliability, and the best quality of service (QoS). These all services are not possible for traditional mobile architecture. URLLC is best suited for on-demand real-time interactions like remote surgery, vehicle to vehicle(V2V) communication, intelligent transport system, smart grids, etc.

3. eMTC

eMTC stands for massive machine type communication, it is released by 3GPP in its 13th specifications. It offers long-range and broadband machine-type communication at a very reasonable cost with less power consumption.

5G Frequency Bands

Below are two main 5G frequency bands classified in the 5G network:

1. 6 GHz  

6GHz acts as a midpoint between capacity and coverage which provides a better environment for 5G connectivity.  It is a mid-frequency band. It will provide high bandwidth. It makes 5G available anytime, anywhere.                                           

2. Millimeter-wave(mmWave)

MmWave is an important technology for 5G networks that provides a high-performance network.it provides very high-speed wireless connectivity and provides ultra-wide bandwidth for next-generation telecommunication networks.  

Evolutions in Telecomm Generations (from 1st to 5th Generation)

1st Generation

1G was launched in the 1980s. In this generation, for the first time, mobile phones were used and these phones were based on analog technology. They worked as a landline phone. They have a very poor battery, and voice quality and the maximum speed was 2.4kbps.

2nd Generation

2G was launched in the 1990s. In this generation, the phones were based on digital technology and provide better spectrum efficiency, and security than the 1st generation. In this generation, CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and GSM (Global System for Mobile) were also discussed. In the 2nd generation, the speed was 1Mbps. 

3rd Generation

3G was launched in the 2000s. 3G was the first mobile broadband system that was used to provide the voice with some multimedia. 3G also used packet switching for fast data transmission. The main motive of this generation was to provide higher speed data than the 2nd generation. This generation provides data rates up to 14Mbps.

4th Generation

4G was launched in 2009. In the 4th Generation, the information rate upgraded from 20 to 60 Mbps. It works on LTE & WiMAX technologies and provides bandwidth up to 100 Mhz.

5th Generation

It is a real improvement among all the generations of the network. It provides very high-speed data transfer with very low latency. 5G brings three services for end-users like eMBB (External Mobile Broadband), eMTC (Massive machine type communication), and URLLC (Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication).

Types of 5G Bands

5G consists mainly of three bands, i.e. low, mid, and high-frequency spectrum.

1. Low-Band Spectrum

In the Low-Band spectrum, the maximum speed is up to 100Mbps. which means that the telecom companies can install it and use it for commercial cellphone users.

2. Mid-Band Spectrum

Mid-Band Spectrum provides high speed as compared to the low-band spectrum. Mid band spectrum can be used by industries and specialized factories.

3. High-Band Spectrum

High-Band Spectrum provides the highest speed among all the three bands, it will be used in upcoming future applications like the internet of things. 

Emerging 5G Standards and Its Features 

5G offers a very high-speed data rate, low latency, high throughput, and highly reliable connectivity between devices and IoT worldwide. 5G will provide a very reliable and scalable model to develop applications for modern generations and industry goals. 

Below are the services provided by the 5G Network:

  • Ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC): URLLC service is used to provide high-speed vehicle connectivity(V2V), a real-time environment for machines, industrial connectivity, and multiple independent actions. And due to low latency communication remote medical care, and operations are possible.
  • Massive Machine to Machine Communication: 5G provides massive machine-to-machine communication and that is also known as IoT, which provides connectivity between different machines without the involvement of human beings. This service intensifies the application of 5G and provides connectivity between agriculture, industries, and construction.
  • Enhanced Mobile Broadband: Enhanced mobile broadband is a useful case of 5G, which uses the massive MIMO antenna, mmWave, and beamforming techniques to provide very high-speed data rate connectivity across a wide range of networks. 
  • New and Emerging Technologies: 5G has many new technologies like beamforming, massive MIMO, mmWave, small cell, NOMA, MEC, and network slicing. It introduced so many new features to the market. 

Like virtual reality (VR), an individual can experience the physical presence of a person who is a million kilometers away from them. There are many other technologies like smart homes, smart schools, and smart sports academies that also came into the market with the 5G mobile network.

5G Applications

 5G provides a high data range, low latency, high coverage, improved quality of services (QoS), and high reliability. 5G is faster than 4G which provides remote-controlled operations on a network with zero delays. It offers maximum throughput of up to 20Gbps. 

5G provides unlimited connectivity at your convenience anytime, anywhere with a high-speed data rate, high throughput, low latency, higher scalability, and efficient communication technology. 

There are so many applications provided by the 5G mobile network are as follows:

1. Internet of Things

Connecting everything. The 5G mobile network plays a very important role in developing the IoT. IoT will connect things with the internet like sensors, objects, and applications. 5G will provide very high internet connectivity for data collection, transmission, control, and processing. In different areas 5G provides various advantages to IoT as follows:

2. Smart Farming

5G technology will play a crucial role in smart farming and agriculture. With the help of 5G sensors and GPS technology, farmers can track live attacks on crops and manage them quickly. These smart sensors can also be used in irrigation, pesticides, and electricity control.

3. Smart Cities

5G technology also helps in developing the smart cities applications like automatic traffic control, local area broadcasting, smart lighting system, crowd management, emergency control, etc.

4. Industrial IoT

5G technology will offer so many features for upcoming future industries like safety, smart packing, and shipping. 5G smart sensors also provide smarter, safer, and cost-effective industrial IoT operations.

5. Smart Homes

In today’s busy life, smart home appliances are highly demanded. As 5G provides high-speed data connectivity so it makes smart homes more real, and smart appliances are easily accessible remotely. It provides very high speed and low latency communication.

6. Satellite Internet

Ground base stations are not available in some remote areas, 5G will play a very important role in providing connectivity in such areas. By using a satellite system the 5G network will provide connectivity.

7. Healthcare and Mission-Critical Applications

Using 5G technology doctors can perform advanced medical procedures. The 5G network provides high-speed internet connectivity within classrooms due to which attending classes and seminars will be easy and by using 5G technology patients can connect to doctors and can take their advice.

Scientists are now building smart medical devices which will help patients having chronic medical conditions. And it will be beneficial for sending large files within seconds to patients like their MRI reports.

5G Technologies 

There are so many recent advances in 5G Massive MIMO, 5G NOMA, 5G millimeter wave, and 5G IoT.

1. 5G Massive MIMO

MIMO stands for Multiple–input–multiple–output. It is a very important technology for wireless telecommunication. Massive MIMO is used for sending and receiving multiple signals simultaneously over the same radio signal. 

    5G massive MIMO technology includes the following: 

  • Data Rate: It provides wireless high-speed data rate in gigabits per second.
  • The Number of Users: In 5G technologies, one cell consists of more than 100 antennas.
  • MIMO Role in 5G: It plays an important role in the deployment of future 5G mobile communication.

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Pictorial-representation-of-multi-input-and-multi-output-MIMO_fig1_357277343

2. 5G Non- orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)

5G NOMA plays a very important role in wireless communication.it provides various benefits like spectrum efficiency, low latency with high reliability, and high-speed connectivity. NOMA is used to work on base to serve multiple users with the same resource like time, space, and frequency

5G NOMA includes various features as follows:

  • NOMA is different from TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA.
  • NOMA offers high-speed data rates and resolves all the loopholes.
  • NOMA provides nonorthogonal transmission on the transmitter end which is used to provide a setup for intracell and intercell interference.
  • The main function of NOMA is to improve the spectrum efficiency by strengthening the ramification of the receiver.

3. 5G Millimeter Wave(mmWave)

5G mmWave is a very high-frequency band, which is very useful for 5G network. It uses a 30 GHz to 300Ghz spectrum band for transmission. If we use mmWave it increases the spectrum bandwidth 10 times, which leads to improved transmission speeds.

5G mmWave mainly offers three advantages:

  1. The MmWave band is a very less used new band.
  2. MmWave can be merged with the MIMO antenna which will offer a higher magnitude capacity as compared to the current communication system.
  3. MmWave signals carry more data than lower frequencies.

5G IoT Based Approach

IoT will connect things with the internet like sensors, devices, appliances, and applications. The 5G mobile network plays a very important role in developing the internet of things. For IoT 5G will provide very high-speed internet connectivity for data collection, processing, and transmission.

There are various examples of IoT:

  • Smart farming
  • Smart cities
  • Autonomous drivers
  • Smart homes
  • Industrial IoT

Main Features of 5G over 4G Network:

1. Small cell

Low-powered cellular radio access nodes are known as small cells which work in the range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. They can work with low power and are capable of working with high data rates. These cells use some new technologies like MIMO, beamforming, and mmWave for high-speed data transmission. 

Pictorial representation of communication with and without small cells. |  Download Scientific Diagram

*Pictorial representation of communication with or without small cells*

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Pictorial-representation-of-communication-with-and-without-small-cells_fig4_357277343

2. Beamforming

It is used to transmit the signal in a directional manner. When small cells don’t use beamforming then the signals do not move in a particular direction but when small cells use beamforming then the signals move in a particular direction to a device.

Source: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/22/1/26/htm

3. Mobile Edge Computing (MEC)

MEC is an extended version of cloud computing. Cloud computing is a very popular technology, but it has a drawback in that the services present in the cloud are too far from the end-user. 

MEC is used to create an edge between the cloud server and the end-user and bring cloud computing closer to the end-user. MEC is divided into two parts, the first is present at the cloud server and the second is on the user’s device.

Source: https://www.xenonstack.com/blog/edge-computing-vs-cloud-computing